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Preparing a Typescript

Spelling and punctuation

(a) Australian, American and British spelling are acceptable in an English-language typescript, so long as whichever version you adopt is applied consistently throughout.

(b) Punctuation systems also vary. A principal difference between American and British systems, for example, is that the former uses double quotation marks where the latter would use single. We are reluctant to offer prescriptions, except to say again that consistency is essential. If your typescript is presented in American style, following the Chicago punctuation system, it should follow it throughout. Consistent punctuation will increase the speed with which the book is copy-edited and the overall efficiency of the production process.

General layout and pagination

(a) Please double-space all copy, including notes and bibliography.

(b) Your copy should be typed or printed on one side of the paper only (double-sided copy is unacceptable). You should leave generous margins at top, bottom, left and right: remember that the copy-editor and designer will need to make marks in these margins, for the benefit of the typesetter. Untidy copy will lead to setting errors.

(c) Your typescript should be paginated consecutively throughout (not by chapter) in arabic numerals, from the first page of the introduction (if there is one) or chapter one.

Notes, reference systems, and bibliography

(a) Please keep notes brief, giving source references with as little additional matter as possible. Notes should be numbered by chapter in an unbroken sequence (3a, as an afterthought, is not acceptable). Discursive notes should be avoided by incorporating the material into the main text where possible, or omitting it altogether.

(b) A bibliography appearing at the end of your book should contain all works cited in your text and any additional titles you would like to include. If necessary, it can be subdivided according to topic, or by primary and secondary material, but more than three subdivisions should be avoided. If you are using the author-date system (see page 11), it is common to call your end-of-book list a list of references rather than a bibliography, and in this case it should contain only those works cited in the text and would not be subdivided.

(c) Be clear and consistent from note to note, and note to bibliography. The most important point is to ensure that every reference in the text and notes tallies with the bibliography or list of references, in details such as the form and spelling of the author's name; the date of publication; the wording, spelling, punctuation and capitalization of the title; the place of publication etc. (See (g) below.)

(d) Op. cit., loc. cit. and idem should not be used as forms of reference; but ibid. may be used.

(e) Where the inclusion of a list of abbreviations and/or a note on the text will help to clarify and rationalize the system used, please provide one (or both) in the preliminary pages at the front of your book.

(f) It is essential to supply double-spaced copy for all notes and bibliography/list of references (as well as for the main text). Your notes will often require more copy-editorial attention than the text itself, and it is essential that sufficient space is left between and around lines of notes for the copy-editor to make marks intelligible to the typesetter.

(g) Both the short-title system and the author-date system provide good models for laying out references. You may have special reasons for wanting to adopt one or the other, but as a general rule books in humanities subjects (which refer regularly to historical sources which may have had several publication and re-publication dates over the years) use the short-title system, while books in more technical subjects tend to use the author-date system. There follow detailed descriptions of workable forms of the short-title system and then the author-date system.

The short-title system

A source should be given a full reference the first time it is cited in your notes. In some books it may also be advisable to give the full reference the first time a work is mentioned in each chapter. The full note reference should include the following information (an asterisk indicates an optional item, but the item should be included throughout, if at all):

Full references to books
  • author's/editor's first name(s) or initials
  • author's surname
  • complete title (including subtitle, if any)
  • editor, compiler or translator, if any
  • series title, if any
  • edition, if not the original
  • number of volumes, if applicable
  • place of publication (but not essential if place of publication is also part of publisher's name)
  • publisher's name*
  • date of publication
  • volume number (preferably in roman numbers)
  • page number(s)

e.g. A. T. Runnock, Medieval Fortress Building, new edition, 2 vols. (Cambridge University Press, 1976), vol. I, pp. 135-7.

e.g. G. S. Rousseau and Pat Rogers (eds.), The Enduring Legacy: Alexander Pope, Tercentenary Essays (Cambridge University Press, 1988), p. 44.

e.g. B. A. Phythian (ed.), Considering Poetry: an Approach to Criticism (London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1991), pp.18-19.

Full references to unpublished material (including unpublished theses or dissertations)
  • author's first name(s) or initials
  • author's surname
  • title of document (with or without inverted commas)
  • volume or batch number, where applicable
  • name of collection, if known
  • folio number, or call number, if known
  • depositary and where located (or academic institution with date for PhD theses and dissertations)

e.g. H. R. Southall, 'Regional unemployment patterns in Britain, 1851 to1914', PhD thesis, University of Cambridge (1984), p. 72.

e.g. Richardson to Lady Bradshaigh, 15 December 1748, 'Richardson/Bradshaigh letters', Forster collection, XI, fo. 7, Harvard University.

Subsequent citations in the notes to a source already given in full should take a shortened form. A shortened reference includes only the last name of the author and the short title of the book (containing the key word or words from the main title, so as to make the reference easily recognizable and not to be confused with any other work), followed by the page number of the reference. Thus:

Shortened references to books
  • author's surname (no first name unless there is more than one author with the surname)
  • short title of the book
  • volume number, if applicable page number(s)

e.g. Rousseau and Rogers (eds.), Enduring Legacy, p. 45.

e.g. Phythian (ed.), Considering Poetry, pp. 35-6.

In general, titles of two or three words should not be shortened,

e.g. Runnock, Medieval Fortress Building, p. 74.

Shortened references to journal articles
  • author's surname (no first name unless there is more than one author with the surname)
  • short title of the article (with or without inverted commas)
  • page number(s) (without p. or pp.)

e.g. Salter, 'Pilgrimage to truth', 34-5.

e.g. Tieje, 'A peculiar phase', 75.

Shortened references to unpublished material (including unpublished theses or dissertations)
  • author's surname (no first name unless there is more than one author with the surname)
  • short title
  • page number(s)

e.g. Southall, 'Regional unemployment', p. 72.

e.g. 'Richardson/Bradshaigh letters', fo. 116.

Finally, a bibliography at the end of the book will (if required at all) reproduce all the references in their full form in alphabetical order, with the author's surname appearing first (see (h) below).

The author-date system

The author-date system (also known as the Harvard system) works best for books in social science subjects such as linguistics and economics, where the references are to secondary works rather than primary sources. It is not usually suitable for literary books, or those with references to manuscript collections, historical documents, foreign works, and translations.

The main advantage of the author-date system is that it is concise and easy for the reader to follow. Since the reference is given in a short form in the text, footnotes or endnotes may not be needed. The author-date system is, however, less flexible than the short-title system, and it cannot be combined with another bibliographical system.

In the author-date system, all published works referred to in the text must be included in one alphabetical list of references at the end of the book, or - in the case of contributory volumes - a separate list may be included at the end of each chapter. Similarly, all works in this reference list must be cited in the text.

The textual reference should give the author's or editor's surname, the date of publication and the page reference within brackets in the form:

(Culler 1989, p. 20) or (Culler 1989: 20)

This is the same for all works, whether books, journal articles, chapters in an edited book or PhD theses. Personal communications should be fully attributed in the text, as they will not appear in the list of references.

If an author has published more than one work in a year, these should be cited as 1989a, 1989b, etc.

Et al. can be used for works by three or more authors, provided there is no possible ambiguity - i.e. that Smith et al. 1990, for example, could not refer to more than one work by Smith and colleagues. The names of the co-authors should, however, be given in the list of references.

The list of references should then give the full details for each work in the following order (an asterisk indicates an optional item which should be included throughout, if at all):

References to books
  • author's/editor's surname
  • author's/editor's first name or initials
  • date of publication
  • title of publication
  • place of publication (but not essential if place of publication is also part of publisher's name)
  • name of publisher

e.g. Baranzini, Mauro and Scazzieri, Roberto (eds.) 1990, The Economic Theory of Structure and Change, Cambridge University Press.

References to journal articles
  • author's surname
  • author's first name or initials
  • date of publication
  • title of article (with or without inverted commas)
  • title of journal
  • the journal volume number (in arabic numbers)
  • the relevant page numbers

e.g. Higginbotham, James 1983, 'On semantics', Linguistic Inquiry 16: 547-94.

References to chapters in an edited volume

e.g. Morishima, Michio 1990, 'Economic theory and industrial revolution', in Baranzini and Scazzieri (eds.), pp. 175-97.

There is no need to give full publication details if the edited volume is also included in the list of references in its own right.

The form for entries in the bibliography is similar to that for full note references in the short-title system. The chief difference between an entry in the bibliography and the same information when given in a full note is that in a note the author's name and initials are not inverted as they are in an alphabetically arranged bibliography. Also, a note usually carries the page number(s) or other specific references to the part of the source which is being cited; while the bibliography, if it features page numbers at all, carries those designating the section of a journal or multi-author volume covered by the whole of the cited article. Thus, bibliography listings should be laid out in the following form:

Phythian, B. A. (ed.), Considering Poetry: an Approach to Criticism, London: Hodder and Stoughton, 1991.

Rousseau, G. S. and Rogers, Pat (eds.), The Enduring Legacy: Alexander Pope, Tercentenary Essays, Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Runnock, A. T., Medieval Fortress Building, Cambridge University Press, 1976.

Salter, Elizabeth, 'Piers Plowman and the pilgrimage to truth', Essays and Studies 11 (1958), 30-48.

Southall, H. R., 'Regional unemployment patterns in Britain, 1851 to 1914', PhD thesis, University of Cambridge, 1984.

Tieje, Arthur Jerrold, 'A peculiar phase of the theory of realism in pre-Richardsonian fiction', PMLA 28 (1913), 213-52.

Entries in a list of references will follow the form given at the end of the author-date system section above. As you can see, the main difference between this and the short-title system is that the date of publication follows the author's name.


Authors of books in the humanities field should avoid overly subdividing chapters, and should not number the subdivisions. Other kinds of book, more often in the social sciences, may require frequent subdivision (e.g. for setting out categories of technical material).

Levels of headings should be clearly indicated. It is recommended this be done by preceding each heading with the letter A, B or C, as appropriate.

Corrections to the typescript

(a) Make corrections neatly between the lines (not in the margin) and retype any sections that are heavily corrected. Do not use proof-correction marks in the margin of your typescript.

(b) If you have to make corrections while the typescript is being copy-edited, please supply a copy of the old page with the correction ringed in red, not a new page with the correction already made electronically (and thus invisible to the copy-editor).

Quotations and permission to reproduce them

(a) As a guideline, quotations of more than about sixty words should be set off (i.e. indented, no inverted commas, with an extra space above and below) from the main text; those of fewer than sixty words should run on in the text inside inverted commas.

(b) Line references should be either numbers alone '78-82', or 'lines 78-82'. Do not use 'll.', which can be confused with II or 11.

(c) Quotations should be kept to a minimum, except where length is indispensable for a close analysis. Quotations count towards the word limit.

(d) When quotation in foreign languages is essential, it is preferable in most cases to quote in the original and follow this directly (not in the notes) with an English translation in brackets; but this depends upon the kind of book. If in doubt, consult your editor.

(e) Permission and copyright:
Quotations from works still in copyright can lead to problems. Copyright is protected internationally, and lasts for at least fifty years from the death of the author (or editor of a critical edition); in the USA in some cases it will last longer. Always consult your Press editor if you are in any doubt at all about a particular author or work.

In some circumstances, it is permissible to quote from material which is still in copyright under the so-called 'fair-dealing' clause of the Copyright Act. The relevant legislation reads as follows (the British is more stringent than the American):

UK - No fair-dealing with a literary, dramatic or musical work shall constitute an infringement of the copyright in the work if it is for purposes of criticism or review, whether of that work or of another work, and is accompanied by a sufficient acknowledgement.

US - Notwithstanding the provisions of section 106 [which lists the exclusive rights of the copyholder], the fair use of a copyright work, including such use by reproduction in copies or phonorecords or by any other means specified by that section, for purposes such as criticism, comment, news reporting, teaching (including multiple copies for classroom use), scholarship, or research, is not an infringement of copyright. In determining whether the use made of a particular work in any particular case is a fair use the factors to be considered shall include:

(1) the purpose and character of the use, including whether such use is of a commercial nature or is for non-profit educational purposes;

(2) the nature of the copyrighted work;

(3) the amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the copyrighted work as a whole; and

(4) the effect of the use upon the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

What this means, in plain English, is that if you go on to provide a 'close reading' of the quoted matter, analysing its specific wording carefully and/or carrying out a critique of its content, that is 'fair-dealing'. If, however, you use the quotations merely to illustrate a point, or to avoid paraphrasing (e.g. 'T. S. Eliot's preoccupation with . can be seen in passages such as "quote" ' ), that, according to the law, is not 'fair'. The same is true of the use of quotations as epigraphs, dedications and so on.

To reproduce any in-copyright quotation, of whatever length, which is not 'fair', it is necessary to write to the publisher of the text and request permission to use it, providing details of the total number of words quoted, and information about your book. You will sometimes then be charged a reproduction fee. We urge you to consult your Press editor before proceeding to ask for text permissions, as in many cases he or she may be able to suggest an alternative course of action and will in any case advise on the exact form of words for your request. A basic rule-of-thumb when preparing a typescript is first of all to keep quotations to a minimum; and then to try to ensure that any quotation of in-copyright material is covered by the provisions of the 'fair-dealing' clause.

Please note that the source of in-copyright material must be given in print, even when there is no need to seek permission to reproduce (i.e. in cases where the quotation is safely covered by the 'fair-dealing' clause). Thus an in-copyright quotation (even when 'fair') must always have a note reference, or an indication in an acknowledgements paragraph or bibliography (in cases where a particular in-copyright edition is quoted repeatedly), or some other kind of reference, naming the publisher and date of publication.

Also note that previously unpublished material must never be quoted without the copyright holder's permission. Always consult your editor in such circumstances.

(f) Finally, please ensure that all quotations are doublespaced (exactly the same as the text, the notes, and the bibliography).

Illustrations and permission to reproduce them

(a) If you are writing about a subject that requires illustration, you should consult your Press editor at the earliest possible stage to discuss the type and quantity of illustrations. It is then your responsibility to obtain photographic prints or transparencies (from the photographic service of your university library or other source) and to submit them along with the final typescript ready for production.

For black and white photographs we need sharp glossy prints with good contrast. They should be 8in by 6in or 200mm by 150mm and will usually be reduced in size by the Press, which will sharpen the image. If colour illustrations are to be included in your book (and this must be agreed in advance with your editor), please submit them in one of three forms: transparencies in any size, 35mm slides, or prints. Prints should be larger than their final size. Any illustration cut or duplicated from previously printed material will be inferior in quality to a photographic original and we strongly recommend, wherever possible, that illustrations are taken from original prints.

Please be sure to add a label to all illustrations giving your name, the title of the book and the illustration number, and to provide a full caption list. Please do not write directly on the back of a photograph. You should also indicate the position in the text where each illustration is to be located, giving the typescript folio number. A separate list of illustrations must be provided for the preliminary pages of the book, incorporating a short form of the picture's title (often an abbreviation of the caption), and a credit line conforming to the instructions of the copyright holder etc. (See (c) below.)

(b) You should submit any suggestions for a dust-jacket illustration/design for your book in advance of delivery. Send your editor xeroxes of images you consider suitable, for discussion. When a picture is settled upon, you will need to obtain a photographic print as described under (a) above. Your suggestions regarding jackets are always welcomed, though the final decision will be the responsibility of the Press's designers.

(c) Permission to reproduce pictures should be sought from the relevant parties, and in the case of a picture this can be complicated. The owner of a pictorial representation is often someone other than the gallery in which it hangs or the library archive in which it is stored. None the less, if the gallery or library makes a photographic print or transparency, they can claim copyright in that particular photographic image. Thus, it is often necessary to obtain the gallery/library's permission for use of the particular photograph, and also the permission of the owner to reproduce the matter represented. Most galleries/libraries have established procedures and it is best to consult them in the first place. For example, a photo of a work of modern art acquired from the Tate Gallery in London will require the permission of the Gallery itself and the owner of the picture (to whom the Gallery will direct you). In the case of older material, of course, the gallery/library may itself also be the owner, which makes things simpler.

(d) If you are supplying digital images of your own, their resolution must be at least 300 dots per inch (dpi).

When applying for permission (often on a special form which the gallery/library will provide), you should make clear if appropriate that you are an individual academic writing a specialized book for distribution in a limited market. Fees may then be waived. You will need to demonstrate to the Press that you have cleared permissions by including suitable credit lines (e.g. 'Reproduced by kind permission of . etc.') in the list of illustrations at the beginning of your book. You may also want to include a general expression of gratitude to the permission-granters in your acknowledgements section.

Maps, figures, diagrams, charts, graphs

If your book requires non-photographic illustrative material, you should provide either rough artwork to be redrawn at the Press by a professional designer; or finished artwork, drawn by yourself or a designer of your own commissioning, to camera-ready copy standard. Each piece, whether it is rough or finished artwork, should be presented on a separate piece of paper, apart from the main body of the text. Please be sure to label all pieces on the back, writing your name and the number of the artwork as it is referred to in the text . You must also indicate the relevant position in the text, giving the typescript folio number, and submit a separate list of maps/figures/diagrams/charts for the preliminary pages of the book. For rough artwork use a black pen, and draw very distinct lines and patterns on white paper. Please keep the maps/figures simple, including only essential labelling, and provide a typed list of items or place names, as appropriate. (The more complicated the artwork, the more expensive it becomes to redraw.)

It may be possible to use artwork supplied on disk, if the drawing program used can be read by the typesetter or printer. Postscript files are not acceptable as labelling may need amending, so please save your artwork as TIFF and EPS files (at 300 dpi or greater). To assess quality and ease of production a sample disk would be required containing all or a selection of the drawings, together with information about the program used and a print-out of everything contained on the disk. The same principles apply to the production of music examples.

If your book is to include a large amount of artwork, please consult your editor at an early stage. He/she will be able to advise you more fully on precise Press requirements, and early discussions will save considerable time and money later on. Also, if you plan to submit finished artwork, your editor will want to see examples prior to delivery of the final typescript, so that he/she can advise on any changes that may be needed.


Tables should be typed carefully, using plenty of space, with column headings clearly identified, and the 'stub' or side axis of the table set off from the body of the table. They should be numbered in one sequence through the book (if there are fewer than about half a dozen) or by chapter - table 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2 etc. (Tables in contributory volumes are usually numbered by chapter.) Please check the data in your tables carefully against the corresponding text.

General permissions and acknowledgements

(a) For permissions and acknowledgements relating to quotations and illustrations, please see paragraphs 6(e) and 7(c) above.

(b) As regards other parts of your typescript, any section which has been published in the same or similar form previously (a chapter which has appeared verbatim or near-verbatim as a journal article) can be reproduced only with the permission of the copyright holder. In many cases this may be you (check your contract with the journal in question); but sometimes journals claim copyright in the articles they commission, and in such a case you would need to write to the journal editor asking for his or her permission to reproduce the piece in the new context. This is normally a formality, and fees are rarely payable. The original source should be cited in your general acknowledgements paragraph at the front of the book. If the present piece is quite different to its original version, though clearly derived from it, permission need not be sought, but it is considered polite to mention the source in your acknowledgements using a formula like 'The article upon which parts of chapter 7 are based was published in . etc.'

Author Questionnaire

This document will be sent to you by your editor prior to your final submission. It asks for basic biographical details (affiliation etc.), ideas for advertising and marketing outlets, the draft of a blurb for use on the dust-jacket and in publicity copy, and a range of other such details. This provides you with an opportunity to contribute information not evident from the typescript itself but crucial to the publishing process. The AQ is considered essential and production will not begin until we have received the completed version from you.

Checklist for complete copy

While you may want to submit a draft, unfinished version of your typescript to your editor at an early stage in the process (e.g. for him or her to assess, or offer preliminary guidance, or take advice from a referee), it is important that the copy you submit for production should include everything in what is, from your point of view, the final form. A copy-editor will of course read the text as part of the production process, but authors are encouraged not to make substantial changes themselves during copy-editing (and once copy-editing is complete, no further authorial changes can be made - see C4 below). Production will not begin until every item of the typescript package is on your editor's desk. There follows for your convenience a checklist of complete copy, i.e. the copy your editor will expect to have received from you before initiating production (an asterisk indicates optional items, depending on the kind of book you are writing):

Preliminary pages (numbered sequentially in roman):
  • Title page, including book title, your name, and affiliation if appropriate
  • Dedication page*
  • Epigraph page*
  • List of contents
  • List of illustrations (including credit lines where appropriate)*
  • List of maps/diagrams/charts/etc.*
  • List of tables*
  • Foreword*
  • Preface*
  • Acknowledgements*
  • List of abbreviations*
  • Note on texts used*
  • Note on transliteration* (e.g. in modern languages books)
  • Note on dating systems* (e.g. Gregorian or modern calendar in history/archaeology books)
  • Notes on contributors* (in the case of a multi- contributor volume)
  • Chronology*
  • Glossary*
Main pages (numbered sequentially throughout - i.e. not chapter-by-chapter - using arabic numbers):
  • Main text with chapters (including Introduction if applicable) in order
  • Appendixes*
  • Notes
  • Bibliography or list of references / works cited
  • Index (keyed to typescript folios)
Other items:

A jacket illustration (unless your book is to have a lettered jacket) in the form of a photographic print or negative as appropriate, along with a caption

Internal illustrations in the form of photographic prints, numbered and labelled on the back*

Captions to the internal illustrations*

Artwork (rough or finished) for maps, diagrams etc., labelled and captioned*

Documented proof of permissions (for in-copyright quotations, pictures etc.) where required*

Your completed Author Questionnaire

Retain an identical copy of the typescript that you submit.