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Home > Book Production Guide > Cambridge > Humanities & Social Sciences > Stage 1 - Illustrations
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Illustrations

General

  • Check your contract for details of the number and type of illustrations agreed for your book. Please consult your editor if there are any problems.
  • The final version of each illustration must be sent to us with your finished typescript.
  • Each illustration, whether a line figure or a photograph, should be clearly identified with your name and the figure number, preferably on the front.
  • Please provide a full list of captions, and indicate where in the text each illustration should appear. You should also provide a separate list of illustrations for the preliminary pages of the book, incorporating a brief description of the illustration (often an abbreviation of the caption) and a credit line conforming to the instructions of the copyright holder.
  • Each figure should be cited in the text (e.g. 'See Fig. 3.1(a)'), unless you have agreed otherwise with your Press editor.
  • Each figure will be placed in the book near its first text citation, unless you specify otherwise.
  • Indicate your preferences for the final size of all figures, according to the artwork sizing guidelines.
  • If any figures are to be cropped, mark this clearly on a photocopy of the figure or a transparent overlay.
  • Give the source for the figure in the caption in the same form as text citations of references (where possible - in some cases the permission for reproduction requires a specific form of citation in the caption which must be respected). Make sure that the full reference for the source is given in the reference list.
  • Colour figures, whether line illustrations or photographs, must be agreed with your Volume Editor before submission and will only be permitted for figures where colour is essential for the full understanding of the information contained in that figure.

Illustration checklist

  • The author's illustration checklist is to be completed and supplied with the illustrations when the final and complete typescript is submitted for production.
  • Please list each image separately, even if two or more will form parts of a single figure (e.g. Fig. 2.1a and b).
  • Please supply a photocopy of each illustration. If an illustration is supplied electronically, please also provide a hard copy.

Please download the author's illustration checklist
To view PDF files you may need Adobe Acrobat Reader™.
It is available free from the Adobe website download acrobat reader

Photographs

  • Wherever possible, please supply original prints or slides. Scans of original photographs or slides should be at a resolution of 300 dots per inch (at their approximate final size). Scans of photographs or illustrations in existing books or journals will not reproduce well and should be avoided.
  • During the process of origination for printing there will be a degree of loss of quality. This is especially true when colour slides are provided for black-and-white reproduction. Please ensure that your photographs are the best quality in terms of tonal contrast and detail.
  • Any lettering should be marked on a transparent overlay with register marks (to show the edges of the image, so that the correct position of the labels is still clear if the overlay moves).
  • Suggest any areas that may be cropped to reduce the size. Mark the area to be used on a photocopy of the image or a transparent overlay.
  • Consider whether faces should be masked to hide the identity of patients, for example.
  • Use scale bars to indicate the magnification; do not give a magnification factor in the caption as this nearly always has to be adjusted at proof stage to allow for reduction.
  • Please indicate which way up a photograph should be reproduced, if this is not clear.
  • Printouts of electronic files are not acceptable as original hard copy to be scanned.

Line illustrations

  • Unless otherwise agreed with your Press editor, all artwork should be provided in finished form suitable for reproduction, either as hard copy originals or as electronic files (see Electronic illustrations). If your Press editor has agreed that you will not be labelling your figures then please provide photocopies of the figures with the labels clearly marked. If you will be providing roughs for redrawing (again, with agreement from your Press editor), make sure that you make them as clearly as possible, with explicit instructions to clarify indistinct symbols, etc.
  • Keep tints (shades of grey) within the boundaries of 10% to 90% and use them as little as possible, as they reproduce poorly. If the tints are 10% to 30%, any labels and lines that are used over them should be in black. If the tints are 40% to 90%, any labels and lines that are used over them should be in white.
  • If you are providing hard copy only, figures should be drawn at 150% (including the typeface) of the approximate size that the figure will appear in the book; if electronic files are being provided, they should be drawn at 100%. If you are unsure of the final page size of the book please check with your Press editor.
  • Figures should be drawn so that final line thickness is no less than 0.2 mm (0.5 pt) and the typeface (preferably in a sans serif font, e.g., Arial, Helvetica, Gill sans or Univers) is 3.2 mm (9 pt). We suggest that you use Times or a suitable mathematical font if your labels contain maths.

Tables

  • Tables should be typed carefully, using plenty of space, with column headings clearly identified, and the 'stub' or side axis of the table set off from the body of the table.
  • Tables should be numbered in one sequence through the book (if there are fewer than about half a dozen) or by chapter (table 1.1, 1.2, 2.1, 2.2 etc). Tables in contributory volumes are usually numbered by chapter.
  • Each table should have a concise heading; any necessary further explanation may be added as footnotes.
  • Use superscript lower-case italic letters for footnote indicators. These should be in the order top to bottom, and within that left to right.
  • Where necessary, give the source for each table in shortened form in a note at the foot of the table (not as part of the table heading). Make sure that the full details of all table sources are given in the reference list.
  • Make sure that each abbreviation used in a table is fully explained in a footnote, unless you have a list of abbreviations.
  • Check carefully that tables are consistent with the text, with regard both to style and the information given.
  • Make sure that each table is referred to in the text; a table will be placed close to its first citation in the text unless you indicate otherwise. You may indicate in the margin the approximate position of each table.

Electronic illustrations

  • We are happy to accept figures provided electronically, but cannot guarantee that we will be able to use all electronic files. Please provide a test disk or files before submitting the final manuscript so that we can identify and iron out any difficulties at an early stage.
  • Format: We will be able to use most common formats (eps, tif, bmp etc). but please remember that we may not be able to correct your figures if they are in some of these formats (especially eps files). Please discuss the level of necessary correction with your editor at an early stage. Figures drawn in Powerpoint are not ideal.
  • Resolution: Colour and halftone images must be saved at 300dpi at approximately the final size you want the figure to be. If you are unsure of the final size, please save at a higher resolution to allow for re-sizing. Line drawings should be saved at 1200dpi.
  • Line weights: Consider line weights carefully - the default setting on some packages (e.g. Powerpoint) sets these too fine to be clear when output at high resolution (1200dpi), although they may look satisfactory when output to your laser printer at 300-600dpi.
  • Colour: Colour figures should be saved as CMYK not as RGB. In some applications, you will need to specify CMYK even when preparing black and white images.
  • Unless you are preparing your book in TeX or LaTeX, please do not embed the figures in the text. Please supply all figures as separate files.
  • Label every disk with your name, the book title, figure numbers and the application used to create the figures.
  • Produce a clear, hard copy list showing which figures are on which disk, and give the file name for each figure, incorporating the figure number in the file name (e.g. 'Disk 1: Figure 1 [fig01.tif]').
  • Provide a hard copy for each figure that is supplied electronically, clearly labelled with the figure number, file number and disk number.
  • Do not include legends in the figures. These should be incorporated in the figure caption, and all captions provided as a separate list.
  • Please download and complete the illustration checklist and send it in with your finalised typescript and artwork.
  • Printouts of electronic files are not acceptable as original hard copy to be scanned.

Plate sections

  • Please check with your Press editor whether a plate section is necessary and viable for your book.
  • All illustrations to be used in a plate section must be supplied separately from the main figures, and clearly labelled for use in a plate section.

All instructions for submitting artwork, as provided on these pages, apply also to illustrations for plate sections.

Images for the jacket or cover

If you are providing a jacket or cover illustration (as decided with your Press editor), please provide a hard-copy original where possible, and ensure that all copyright permissions are obtained. If you are providing an electronic file, please see the instructions for submitting electronic illustrations.

Permissions

  • It is preferable to use your own material for illustrations, figures and tables, or to adapt other material, rather than reproduce from another source. If figures and/or tables do come from another source they must always be acknowledged at the end of the caption. Note that material has to be substantially modified to avoid needing permission to reproduce. Cosmetic changes such as tinting, relabelling, or redrawing as is, are not enough.
  • If an illustration is taken directly from another source without substantial modification you must obtain written permission from the copyright holder, who may be a scientific society, author(s) or publisher(s). (Note that hospitals hold copyright for any photographs taken during the course of work done on their premises and permission needs to be obtained from the patients if the subjects of the photograph can be recognised.) If in doubt, please consult your Press editor.
  • Suggested wordings for permissions letters are:

    • For a permission request to use extract/illustration/table from another publisher's work for which no permission fee is expected to be charged:
    • Dear <rightsholder>

      <Cambridge book title>

      I am writing/editing/contributing to an academic work under the provisional title above, to be published by Cambridge University Press in <estimated date of publication> with an initial print run of approximately ................ copies and an estimated retail price of xxxx.

      I request your permission to include the following material in this work:

      Author:
      Title:
      Date of publication:
      ISBN:
      Page no(s)./
      illustration no(s)./
      table no(s).:

      Unless otherwise informed, permission will be assumed to grant the nonexclusive right to use the material in print and electronic editions of the work in all languages throughout the world, in all subsequent reprints and revised editions of the work and as part of a digitised extract from the work made available online for promotional purposes only.

      *I further request permission for the material to be included in any reprint or translation published under licence from Cambridge University Press.

      The source of the material will be fully acknowledged in the usual way. Please indicate below if you have any special requirements:

      ...............................................................................................

      ...............................................................................................

      Please indicate your agreement to this request by signing and returning one copy of this letter. The duplicate is for your own records. By your countersignature, you warrant that you control these rights and are authorised to grant this permission.

      If this is not the case, I would be grateful if you could let me know to whom I should apply.

      Yours sincerely

      <name>

      I/we hereby grant the permission detailed above.

      Signed:.......................................................................... Date: ..............................................................

      *may be omitted

      Download this letter

    • Letter to be used for a permission request to a museum, agency etc. for the use of an illustration for which a permission fee is expected to be charged:
    • Dear <rightsholder>

      <Cambridge book title>

      I am writing/editing/contributing to an academic work under the provisional title above, to be published by Cambridge University Press in <estimated date of publication> with an initial print run of approximately ................ copies and an estimated retail price of xxxx. Cambridge University Press is a not-for-profit organisation, and my book is intended principally for scholars and their libraries.

      I request your permission to include the following material in this work:

      <details of illustration(s)>

      I require the nonexclusive right to use the material in print and electronic editions of the work in all languages throughout the world, in all subsequent reprints and revised editions of the work and as part of a digitised extract from the work made available online for promotional purposes only.

      Please advise me of your terms and conditions. In accordance with normal publishing practice, any permission fee will be paid on publication of the work.

      Yours sincerely

      <name>

      Download this letter

  • It is important that you request all permissions as soon as you have the necessary details so that any fees can be settled and you can insert any special credit lines into the captions before the typescript is sent to the typesetter. If in doubt, please consult your Press editor.
  • Copies of the letters giving permission to reproduce copyright material must be sent to your Press editor when you submit your typescript.
  • Permission is also required for long extracts quoted from other books. See Quotations and permission to reproduce them.

Labelling figures

  • For clarity, please keep figure labels to a minimum.
  • Labelling should be of a consistent size within each illustration, and where possible throughout all artwork.
  • Make sure that all labelling on a figure matches the text and the caption (e.g. use the same symbols, the same italicisation, the same abbreviations, the same spelling).
  • Variables should be italicised, to match the text. (The sub/superscripts should be roman or italic, again to match the text.)
  • Make sure that each symbol and abbreviation used in the figure is explained in the caption.
  • Captions should not be included in the figures themselves, but should be provided as a separate list.
  • Only the first word of a label should begin with an upper case letter (e.g. 'Energy levels' not 'Energy Levels'). Lower case lettering is also acceptable (e.g. 'energy levels'). This should be consistent throughout.
  • Make sure that all parts of figures are clearly labelled (we prefer these as (a), (b), etc.) and that each part of the figure is referred to in the caption.
  • Graphs should be as simple as possible and should not be boxed. All axes must be labelled, and the units given where appropriate.
  • Axis labels on graphs should preferably have the units in parentheses, e.g. Distance (mm), Mass (x102 g), Temperature, T (K). They should be placed reasonably close to the axis and should normally be centred on it. (However, if the label for the vertical axis is less than four characters, then it should be placed near the top of the axis and turned so that it reads from left to right.)
  • The typeface for figure labels (preferably in a sans serif font) should be 9 points.

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